Online RMA Request
Please complete this RMA form and submit.
We respond to all requests within 24 hrs. If for some reason you haven't received a response, please get in touch with us.
The RMA number is the SN on your device.
4705 Bakers-Ferry Rd SW Ste F
Atlanta, GA 30336
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What is RAID?
Introduction to RAID
RAID stands for Redundant Array of Independent Disks.
RAID is a form of data management for more than one volume. Very simply put, RAID will allow you to treat multiple hard drives as a single volume on your computer.
How it treats the array of drives on the “RAID level” - You’ll have to pick the RAID level that makes the most sense for your needs
What is Parity
In mathematics, parity refers to the evenness or oddness of an integer, which for a binary number is determined only by the least significant bit. In telecommunications and computing, parity refers to the evenness or oddness of the number of bits with value one within a given set of bits, and is thus determined by the value of all the bits. It can be calculated via an XOR sum of the bits, yielding 0 for even parity and 1 for odd parity. This property of being dependent upon all the bits and changing value if any one bit changes, allows for its use in error detection schemes.
Parity data is used by some RAID levels to achieve redundancy. If a drive in the array fails, remaining data on the other drives can be combined with the parity data (using the Boolean XOR function) to reconstruct the missing data.
Parity data, quite simply, is the result of a quick equation.
Here's a simple way to think of parity: 6 + 3 = 9
Imagine the 6 on one hard drive, the 3 on another, and the 9 on a third.The 3 and the 6 are your data, but the 9 is the result of a simple equation. If a hard drive was to fail, and you lost, for example, the 3, you could do a simple calculation to retrieve the 3 (9 minus 6).
RAID 0 (Striping)
This will "stripe" two or more hard drives together and treat them as one large volume. For example, two 250GB drives will RAID 0 to a single 500GB volume. Ten 250GB drives would show up on the desktop as a single volume with 2.5 terabytes of storage. Because a little of the data written is kept on each drive, performance of the stripe increases as more disks are added to it. Writing to 10 drives is roughly 10 times faster than writing to 1 drive. This is especially handy if you need large and fast volumes.
Every drive has a limited life, and each disk added adds another point of failure to the RAID. Each disk is critical in a RAID 0. If any one of the disks in a RAID 0 configuration fails, the entire RAID (and all of the data) is lost.
Despite the disadvantage, RAID 0 is used by those wanting the most performance out of two or more drives. Video/Audio editors commonly use RAID 0 for quick data transfer from on-location to post production.
RAID 1 (Mirroring)
RAID 1 will create an exact duplicate of a volume on the fly. Every time you write information to one drive, the exact same information will be written to the other drive(s) in your mirror. If one drive is lost, your data still exists in its complete form, and will take no time to recover.
It doubles the cost since you now have two drives but use them as one.
Set up the mirror and operate like normal. Some people will take one of the mirrored drives off-site every night and allow the mirror to build on a third drive. If, at any point, a mirrored drive fails, there is no down time, as the data still exists in full on a backup drive. Important files (accounting, financial, personal records) are commonly backed up with a RAID 1 solution.
RAID 10 or 1+0 (Mirror of Stripes)
RAID 10 offers the combined benefits of RAID 1 and 0 with twice the capacity of RAID 1. The total capacity is half the sum of the four drives. The four drives mount and are controlled as a single larger drive. RAID 10 is a pair of RAID 1 (mirrored) pairs for higher failure tolerance. The two RAID 1 sets are combined in RAID 0 for improved read and write performance. RAID 10 can sustain one drive failure per sub array (2 drives total). RAID 10 offers the fastest performance with redundancy available from Avastor.
High $/TB cost. Limited scalability.
Excellent solution for Audio/Video professionals who require high performance, as well as a high fault tolerance. Great for live broadcast/recording.
RAID 3 (Byte Striping)
RAID 3 is the least used of the RAID modes offered by Avastor. RAID 3 uses one drive on the array to store parity data. Bytes of data are split and stored on the remaining drives of the array. It offers very high read and write transfer rates with a high level of fault tolerance. A minimum of three drives is required.
Transaction rate is equal to that of a single disk drive at best (if spindles are synchronized). Write performance can be slower than RAID 5 due to parity calculation overhead and the bottleneck of a dedicated parity drive.
Applications working with large files that require high transfer performance with redundancy, especially serving or editing large files: multimedia, publishing, and so on. RAID 3 is often used for the same types of applications that would typically see the use of RAID 0, where the lack of fault tolerance of RAID 0 makes it unacceptable.
RAID 5 (Parity Striping)
RAID 5 is similar to RAID 3 except that the data is formatted in blocks rather than bytes, and the parity data is spread across all drives in the array versus being stored in a single drive. RAID 5 reserves space equal to the capacity of one drive in the array for parity data. The data chunks that are written are also larger. Read data transactions are very fast while write data transaction are somewhat slower than RAID 10 but faster than RAID 3 (due to the parity that has to be calculated). In the event of a single drive failure, data can still be accessed. A minimum of three drives is required.
Disk Failure has a medium impact on performance.
One of the most common and versatile RAIDs, it is used in servers of all types. RAID 5 is ideal for balancing performance, storage capacity and fault tolerance.
Striping vs Spanning
Striping and Spanning are both forms of RAID 0.
In a stripe RAID setup, the RAID will write a small amount of data to each drive in turn. The cool part is that it can write to all disks in the RAID at the same time. Because of this, a user will see a speed increase for every drive added to the stripe.
Spanning, on the other hand, will write to one disk until it is full and then begin on the next disk. Someone might choose spanning if they have hard disks of different sizes but for some reason would like to treat them as one volume.
A Final Note on RAID
Many RAID modes offer improved redundancy and fault tolerance as well as improved performance. Even when RAID arrays are used, data can still be lost. Simultaneous failure of multiple drives will cause data loss in most RAID arrays. ALWAYS backup your data. Backup data even when it is on a RAID system. There is a saying among data users that is very true, "data is not data until it is in three places".
Why Do I Have Less Drive Space?
Your hard drive shows less space than the published specifications due to a number of reasons.
The way size is calculated and displayed
A unit of storage, 1 GB can mean either 1,000,000,000 (billion) bytes using the decimal system or 1,073,741,824 bytes using the binary system. Most hard drive manufacturers define 1GB as 1,000,000,000 bytes, while a computer’s operating system will treat 1GB as 1,073,741,824 bytes. This is why the operating system shows the hard drive’s capacity as different to the manufacturer’s claim.
Any "Partitions" on the disk will change
the total in a specific partition
Some computers have a non-DOS hard drive partition that is used for features such as Save to Disk, Hibernation, or Recovery. This partition is not normally reported by the operating system, although it can be viewed using a disk partition utility. This is very common on desktops and laptops.
Hidden files and folders decrease available space
By default, all system files are hidden and cannot be seen. This may adversely affect the reporting of available hard drive space. You can set your Folder Options so you view system and hidden files and folders, but do be careful as changes to system files can adversely affect your system.
Compression increases the apparent size, but not the physical size
If you turn on Compression for a drive, it will increase reported free space and used space, but since compression is based upon the actual contents, this number is not fixed, but will change as files are added or changed.
Drives larger than the OS or drivers natively supports
Older operating systems did not support today's larger drives, so the total space reported may be much smaller than the drive specifications.
It is also worth noting that bad sectors are corrected by your operating system and can change the total drive space, free space, or used space as well.
So, as long as a drive is reporting a value approximately close to the specification value, you can be comfortable that you received the right drive and that you are getting the correct data storage.
How To Format Your Drive
1. When you plug your drive into your computer, a drive icon will appear on the desktop
2. Select Applications > Utilities > Disk Utility. Select your Avastor drive on the left and click on the Erase tab from the top menu.
3. Select Mac OS Extended (or your preferred file format) from the Volume Format menu and enter a name for your drive in the Name field.
4. Click Erase to begin drive format. A drive icon with the name you assigned will appear on the desktop after the formatting process is completed. Your newly formatted drive is now ready for use.
To Reformat in Windows 2000, XP, Vista, 7 and 8
1. Right-click on Computer located in the Start Menu and select Manage from the Shortcut menu to open the Computer Management window.
2. Click on Disk Management
3. In the bottom half of the window, right-click on the Unallocated portion of the new drive to be formatted and select New Partition from the shortcut menu.
4. Click Next to proceed with the New Partition Wizard. You may select the partition size, and assign a drive letter path. We recommend you check the Perform a Quick Format box. It saves a lot of time.
5. Click Finish to confirm your settings.