A unit of storage, 1 GB can mean either 1,000,000,000 (billion) bytes using the decimal system or 1,073,741,824 bytes using the binary system. Most hard drive manufacturers define 1GB as 1,000,000,000 bytes, while a computer’s operating system will treat 1GB as 1,073,741,824 bytes. This is why the operating system shows the hard drive’s capacity as different to the manufacturer’s claim.
Any "Partitions" on the disk will change
the total in a specific partition
Some computers have a non-DOS hard drive partition that is used for features such as Save to Disk, Hibernation, or Recovery. This partition is not normally reported by the operating system, although it can be viewed using a disk partition utility. This is very common on desktops and laptops.
Hidden files and folders decrease available space
By default, all system files are hidden and cannot be seen. This may adversely affect the reporting of available hard drive space. You can set your Folder Options so you view system and hidden files and folders, but do be careful as changes to system files can adversely affect your system.
Compression increases the apparent size, but not the physical size
If you turn on Compression for a drive, it will increase reported free space and used space, but since compression is based upon the actual contents, this number is not fixed, but will change as files are added or changed.
Drives larger than the OS or drivers natively supports
Older operating systems did not support today's larger drives, so the total space reported may be much smaller than the drive specifications.
It is also worth noting that bad sectors are corrected by your operating system and can change the total drive space, free space, or used space as well.
So, as long as a drive is reporting a value approximately close to the specification value, you can be comfortable that you received the right drive and that you are getting the correct data storage.
RAID stands for Redundant Array of Independent Disks.
RAID is a form of data management for more than one volume. Very simply put, RAID will allow you to treat multiple hard drives as a single volume on your computer.
How it treats the array of drives on the “RAID level” - You’ll have to pick the RAID level that makes the most sense for your needs
What is Parity
In mathematics, parity refers to the evenness or oddness of an integer, which for a binary number is determined only by the least significant bit. In telecommunications and computing, parity refers to the evenness or oddness of the number of bits with value one within a given set of bits, and is thus determined by the value of all the bits. It can be calculated via an XOR sum of the bits, yielding 0 for even parity and 1 for odd parity. This property of being dependent upon all the bits and changing value if any one bit changes, allows for its use in error detection schemes.
Parity data is used by some RAID levels to achieve redundancy. If a drive in the array fails, remaining data on the other drives can be combined with the parity data (using the Boolean XOR function) to reconstruct the missing data.
Parity data, quite simply, is the result of a quick equation.
Here's a simple way to think of parity:6+3=9
Imagine the6on one hard drive, the3on another, and the9on a third.The3and the6are your data, but the9is the result of a simple equation. If a hard drive was to fail, and you lost, for example, the3, you could do a simple calculation to retrieve the3(9minus6).
RAID 0 (Striping)
This will "stripe" two or more hard drives together and treat them as one large volume. For example, two 250GB drives will RAID 0 to a single 500GB volume. Ten 250GB drives would show up on the desktop as a single volume with 2.5 terabytes of storage. Because a little of the data written is kept on each drive, performance of the stripe increases as more disks are added to it. Writing to 10 drives is roughly 10 times faster than writing to 1 drive. This is especially handy if you need large and fast volumes.
Every drive has a limited life, and each disk added adds another point of failure to the RAID. Each disk is critical in a RAID 0. If any one of the disks in a RAID 0 configuration fails, the entire RAID (and all of the data) is lost.
Despite the disadvantage, RAID 0 is used by those wanting the most performance out of two or more drives. Video/Audio editors commonly use RAID 0 for quick data transfer from on-location to post production.
RAID 1 (Mirroring)
RAID 1 will create an exact duplicate of a volume on the fly. Every time you write information to one drive, the exact same information will be written to the other drive(s) in your mirror. If one drive is lost, your data still exists in its complete form, and will take no time to recover.
It doubles the cost since you now have two drives but use them as one.
Set up the mirror and operate like normal. Some people will take one of the mirrored drives off-site every night and allow the mirror to build on a third drive. If, at any point, a mirrored drive fails, there is no down time, as the data still exists in full on a backup drive. Important files (accounting, financial, personal records) are commonly backed up with a RAID 1 solution.
RAID 10 or 1+0
(Mirror of Stripes)
RAID 10 offers the combined benefits of RAID 1 and 0 with twice the capacity of RAID 1. The total capacity is half the sum of the four drives. The four drives mount and are controlled as a single larger drive. RAID 10 is a pair of RAID 1 (mirrored) pairs for higher failure tolerance. The two RAID 1 sets are combined in RAID 0 for improved read and write performance. RAID 10 can sustain one drive failure per sub array (2 drives total). RAID 10 offers the fastest performance with redundancy available from Avastor.
High $/TB cost. Limited scalability.
Excellent solution for Audio/Video professionals who require high performance, as well as a high fault tolerance. Great for live broadcast/recording.
RAID 3 (Byte Striping)
RAID 3 is the least used of the RAID modes offered by Avastor. RAID 3 uses one drive on the array to store parity data. Bytes of data are split and stored on the remaining drives of the array. It offers very high read and write transfer rates with a high level of fault tolerance. A minimum of three drives is required.
Transaction rate is equal to that of a single disk drive at best (if spindles are synchronized). Write performance can be slower than RAID 5 due to parity calculation overhead and the bottleneck of a dedicated parity drive.
Applications working with large files that require high transfer performance with redundancy, especially serving or editing large files: multimedia, publishing, and so on. RAID 3 is often used for the same types of applications that would typically see the use of RAID 0, where the lack of fault tolerance of RAID 0 makes it unacceptable.
RAID 5 (Parity Striping)
RAID 5 is similar to RAID 3 except that the data is formatted in blocks rather than bytes, and the parity data is spread across all drives in the array versus being stored in a single drive. RAID 5 reserves space equal to the capacity of one drive in the array for parity data. The data chunks that are written are also larger. Read data transactions are very fast while write data transaction are somewhat slower than RAID 10 but faster than RAID 3 (due to the parity that has to be calculated). In the event of a single drive failure, data can still be accessed. A minimum of three drives is required.
Disk Failure has a medium impact on performance.
One of the most common and versatile RAIDs, it is used in servers of all types. RAID 5 is ideal for balancing performance, storage capacity and fault tolerance.
Striping vs Spanning
Striping and Spanning are both forms of RAID 0.
In a stripe RAID setup, the RAID will write a small amount of data to each drive in turn. The cool part is that it can write to all disks in the RAID at the same time. Because of this, a user will see a speed increase for every drive added to the stripe.
Spanning, on the other hand, will write to one disk until it is full and then begin on the next disk. Someone might choose spanning if they have hard disks of different sizes but for some reason would like to treat them as one volume.
Writes to All Disks at the Same Time
Writes to One Disk at a Time
Usable RAID Storage
A Final Note on RAID
Many RAID modes offer improved redundancy and fault tolerance as well as improved performance. Even when RAID arrays are used, data can still be lost. Simultaneous failure of multiple drives will cause data loss in most RAID arrays. ALWAYS backup your data. Backup data even when it is on a RAID system. There is a saying among data users that is very true, "data is not data until it is in three places".
How To Format Your Drive
To Reformat in Mac OS 10.x
1. When you plug your drive into your computer, a drive icon will appear on the desktop
2. Select Applications > Utilities > Disk Utility. Select your Avastor drive on the left and click on the Erase tab from the top menu.
3. Select Mac OS Extended (or your preferred file format) from the Volume Format menu and enter a name for your drive in the Name field.
4. Click Erase to begin drive format. A drive icon with the name you assigned will appear on the desktop after the formatting process is completed. Your newly formatted drive is now ready for use.
To Reformat in Windows 2000, XP, Vista, 7 and 8
1. Right-click on Computer located in the Start Menu and select Manage from the Shortcut menu to open the Computer Management window.
2. Click on Disk Management
3. In the bottom half of the window, right-click on the Unallocated portion of the new drive to be formatted and select New Partition from the shortcut menu.
4. Click Next to proceed with the New Partition Wizard. You may select the partition size, and assign a drive letter path. We recommend you check the Perform a Quick Format box. It saves a lot of time.
5. Click Finish to confirm your settings.
Only Avastor Offers:
A 3 year Warranty on all products we sell
Level One Data Recovery* for 3 years at no charge
Advanced Product Replacement* with no charge standard freight
No other external drive manufacturer comes close!
3 YEAR LIMITED WARRANTY
AVASTOR Inc provides this Limited Warranty for your product (hereinafter referred to as “Product”). Should your Product need warranty service, please contact Avastor.
Subject to the conditions of this Limited Warranty, Avastor warrants this Product to be free from defects in design, material and workmanship at the time of its original purchase by a consumer, and for a subsequent period of three (3) years.
If, during the warranty period, this Product fails to perform under normal use and service, due to defects in design, materials or workmanship, Avastor will either repair or replace the Product in accordance with the terms and conditions of the warranty.
The warranty is valid only if the serial number is present on the Product to be repaired or replaced. Avastor reserves the right to refuse warranty service if the serial number has been removed or changed.
If Avastor repairs or replaces the Product, the repaired or replaced Product shall be warranted for the remaining time of the original warranty period or for ninety (90) days from the date of repair, whichever is longer.
This warranty does not cover any failure of the Product due to normal wear and tear, or misuse. Nor does this warranty cover any failure of the Product due to accident, software or hardware modification or adjustment, or damage resulting from contact with liquids or high g-forces (dropping).
The warranty makes no provisions for data recovery except that which can be recovered by Level One Data Recovery and Avastor cannot be held liable for any loss of data.
THERE ARE NO EXPRESS WARRANTIES, WHETHER WRITTEN OR ORAL, OTHER THAN THIS PRINTED LIMITED WARRANTY. ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE LIMITED TO THE DURATION OF THIS LIMITED WARRANTY. IN NO EVENT SHALL AVASTOR OR ITS LICENSORS BE LIABLE FOR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY NATURE WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOST PROFITS OR COMMERCIAL LOSS; TO THE FULL EXTENT THOSE DAMAGES CAN BE DISCLAIMED BY LAW.
Avastor IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR THE LOSS, CORRUPTION OR DESTRUCTION OF DATA WHILE USING ANY STORAGE PRODUCT manufactured or sold by Avastor. Avastor WILL NOT BE HELD LIABLE IN ANY MANNER FOR THE RECOVERY OR RESTORATION OF ANY lost DATA. You should always make a COPY OF YOUR DATA and store it IN A COMPLETELY DIFFERENT LOCATION.
Level One Data Recovery
Only Avastor offers Level One Data Recovery for the full warranty period. Avastor Level One Data Recovery analyzes your faulty drive to determine the type of fault or data corruption. If we find your data can be retrieved we will copy the data onto a new drive and return it to you at no charge. Sometimes we are not successful or there are physical defects with the hard drive that will prevent the data from being recovered. All cost and liability incurred as part of data recovery, not done by Avastor, are the responsibility of the customer.
*Excludes XD5 and XR4 RAID Series
Avastor Advanced replacement
Only Avastor offers Advanced Replacement for the full warranty period. Avastor will swap out a product without it needing to be returned first. Avastor will ship a new replacement for your defective product. Avastor will also cover all standard/ground outbound freight costs. Your faulty product can be returned within 14 calendar days of receiving the replacement product, if it is not returned you will be invoiced for the full value of a new comparable product. The defective product’s Serial Number must be submitted via email to receive a RMA number prior to the advanced replacement product being shipped.
*Excludes XD5 and XR4 RAID Series
How long is the Avastor warranty?
The Avastor warranty is for three (3) years starting from the shipment date or the date of purchase from an authorized Avastor reseller. (Proof of purchase is required.)
What is covered in the warranty?
The warranty covers your product against any malfunctions or damage that have not resulted from a number of events including, but not limited to: accident, liquid spill or submersion, unauthorized service and/or unauthorized modification. The warranty also includes three (3) years of unlimited technical support, three (3) years of advanced replacements and three (3) years of Level 1 Data Recovery*. The warranty only covers products purchased as new. Replacement enclosures are warranted to be free from defects in materials and workmanship for ninety (90) days or for the remainder of the warranty period, whichever is longer.
Where can I find the warranty?
You can find the warranty policy on our website in thetab above, labeled "Warranty Information"
How do I check if my product is still under warranty?
By providing Avastor with the serial number on your device, we will advise you if the product is still under warranty.
Where can I find my serial number?
As a reference, below are images showing the specific location of the serial number on your device.
My Avastor product does not have a serial number sticker?
If the serial number sticker is absent, it’s possible that you do not have a genuine Avastor device. Avastor tests and packs each device that leaves our factory. Each product is given a serial number at the final stage of testing, which is then recorded in our database. Unfortunately, Avastor cannot honor any warranty without a valid serial number sticker, or one that has been defaced or altered.
How do I get my Avastor product repaired or replaced while under warranty?
1. Contact Avastor Support to troubleshoot any issue.
2. After troubleshooting with an Avastor Support technician, you will be directed to avastor.com to navigate to Support where you can fill out and submit an RMA form.
What will void my warranty?
Avastor’s warranty does not cover any failure of the product due to misuse. Nor does the warranty cover any failure of the product due to accident, software or hardware modification / adjustment, or damage resulting from contact with liquids, or high g-forces (dropping).
Does Avastor sell empty enclosures? If so, is a warranty available?
Yes, Avastor does offer the option to purchase just the enclosure. Each empty enclosure sold will come with a one (1) year warranty. Data recovery is not included under this warranty. The warranty only covers enclosures purchased as new. Replacement enclosures are warranted to be free from defects in materials and workmanship for ninety (90) days or for the remainder of the warranty period, whichever is longer.
What is Advanced Replacement?
At Avastor, we understand your data is critical and we want to make sure that you get your device up and running as soon as possible. The Advanced Replacement feature of our warranty provides you with a new hard drive prior to you returning your defective drive to us. If the defective hard drive is not returned to us within 21 days after receiving the Advanced Replacement, you will be billed for the Advanced Replacement at full MSRP.
Is returning a faulty product free of shipping charges?
Within the contiguous United States, Avastor will provide a free return label enclosed with every Advanced Replacement. If outside of the contiguous United States, contact your local authorized Avastor reseller.
How long will the replacement process take?
Advanced replacement and service time can often depend on the nature of the issue and availability of parts. Avastor aims to have you back up and running as quickly as possible. For the status of your repair or replacement, contact Avastor Support.
What happens to my data if I need it restored?
We offer Level One Data Recovery* for the full three (3) year warranty period, which analyzes your faulty drive to determine the type of fault and data recovery method needed to restore your data. If we are able to recover your data, we will record the data on a new hard drive and return it to you at no charge. Advanced Replacement is not provided with the Level 1 Data Recovery service. The cost incurred to
return the defective drive to Avastor for Level 1 Data Recovery is your responsibility.
What if my data is unrecoverable through Level 1 Data Recovery*?
If we are unable to recover your data through Level 1 Data Recovery methods, we will return the drive to you free of charge. You should then contact a data recovery company offering levels 2 and 3 data recovery solutions.
How do I get an RMA number?
The RMA number is your Avastor product’s serial number. This is the number Avastor uses throughout the product return process, so make sure your device has a valid and readable serial number sticker.
What if my product has been discontinued?
If your device is covered under the Avastor warranty and has been discontinued, we will replace your device with a comparable device.
What if my product is no longer under warranty?
If your product is no longer covered under the Avastor warranty, an Avastor Support technician will provide you with options and costs to repair your device.
*Level 1 Data Recovery is available on all non RAID devices. Level 1 Data Recovery is only available within the contiguous United States. Various international Avastor resellers do offer this service free of charge. Please contact your local Avastor reseller for further information.
Level 1 Data Recovery is a unique benefit of the Avastor Limited Warranty, offered at no charge. As with almost all hard drive manufacturers, Avastor is not at any time obligated or responsible for any data that is damaged, lost, or un-retrievable